THOSE nautical terms whose meanings have already been defined at some length in this work, will not be repeated in this glossary.
ABACK.— Said of a sail when its sheet is to windward and it drives the vessel astern.
ABOUT.— On the other tack.
A-LEE.— The position of the helm when it is put in an opposite direction to the wind.
A-PEEK.— When the chain is hove taut and the vessel is over her anchor.
A-TRIP.— Said of an anchor when it is hauled clear of the ground — same as weighed.
BALANCE REEF.— A diagonal reef in a fore-and-aft sail extending from throat to clews.
BATTENS.— Pieces of wood fastened to the reef-bands of lug sails to make them stand flat.
BEAMY.— Broad; said of a vessel when her breadth is great in proportion to her length.
BEAR AWAY.— To steer so that a vessel sails off her course to leeward.
BELAY.— To make fast the end of a rope temporarily by turning it round a cleat.
BIGHT.— The loop formed by a rope when a knot or hitch is being made.
BOLT ROPE.— The rope surrounding a sail, and to which the canvas is sewed.
BRAIL UP.— To furl a sail along the mast by hauling on a rope which is led from the mast round the sail.
BREAMING.— Cleaning a vessel's bottom by burning the paint or tar off.
BRIDLE.— A rope with its two ends fastened to the two ends of a spar — as to a trawl beam, or to a deep-sea anchor — and held by a rope attached to the middle of the bight.
BROACH TO.— To fall off so much, when going free, as to bring the vessel nearly broadside on to the wind.
BULKHEAD.— Partitions dividing a vessel into sections.
BUMPKIN.— A spar projecting from a vessel to which a sheet or other rope is led; for instance, the mizzen sheet is led through a block or sheave hole at the end of the mizzen bumpkin.
CHANNELS.— Stout pieces of timber bolted on the outside of a vessel, to which the dead-eyes of the riggiog are fastened.
CHOCK A BLOCK.— When the upper and lower blocks of a tackle touch each other and one can hoist no higher.
CLEW.— The lower after corner of a fore-and-aft sail.
CLIP-HOOK.— A metal eye, with two hooks attached to it, working on the same pivot, so that they overlap when closed.
CLOSE-HAULED.— Said of a vessel when she is sailing as close to the wind as possible.
COAMINGS.— A raised ledge round the well of a boat to prevent the water running in.
CRANSE-IRON.— An iron hoop at the bowsprit end, with eyes fitted to it, to which the bobstay and topmast stay are fastened.
CRINGLE.— A rope eye spliced into the bolt rope of a sail enclosing an iron thimble, through which a reef earing is rove.
CROWN OF AN ANCHOR.— Where the arms and shank join.
CRUTCH.— A wooden support for the main-boom when the mainsail is furled.
DEAD-EYE.— A wooden block with three sheaveless holes through which the lanyards of the main-shrouds are rove.
DINGHY.— The smallest of a yacht's boats.
EARING.— A rope which passes through the cringle of a sail and serves to reef it.
EYES OF THE RIGGING.— The loops of the shrouds and stays which are passed ovet the mast-head and rest on the hounds.
FAIR-LEADER.— A block or comb cleat for running rigging, e.g., jib sheets to lead through.
FLUKES.— The barbs at the extremities of an anchor's arms.
FOREFOOT.— A piece of timber at the fore end of the keel, to which the heel of the stem fits.
FOREREACH.— To shoot ahead in stays.
GARBOARD STREAK.— The range of planks on each side of the keel.
GET IN IRONS.— A vessel is in irons when she is in the wind's eye, and, having lost all headway, will not go off on either tack.
GIMBALS.— A contrivance consisting of two or more metal hoops balanced on pivots, so that a compass or lamp swung within the gimbals will not oscillate, but preserve a vertical position.
GRAPNEL.— A small anchor having more than two arms.
GROUND TACKLE.— The tackle — anchor, cables, and springs — used in anchoring a vessel.
GUY.— A rope attached to anything to steady it and prevent its moving. Thus a spinnaker boom has its fore and after guys, and a mainboom is guyed to prevent its swinging aft.
HAWSE-HOLE.— The hole in the bows through which the chain runs.
HAWSER.— A large rope used for warping, etc.
HELM DOWN.— When the helm is put over in the direction towards which the wind is blowing.
HELM UP.— When the helm is put over in the direction the wind is blowing from.
HOUNDS.— The wooden shoulders at the masthead on which the eyes of the shrouds rest.
HOUSE.— To house a topmast is to lower it.
JIBE.— When running, to bring the wind on the other quarter, so that the boom swings over.
KEDGE.— A small anchor. To kedge, is to warp a vessel along with hawser and kedge.
LANYARDS.— Ropes rove through the dead-eyes to set up the standing rigging.
LEE-HELM.— A vessel is said to carry lee-helm when she has a tendency to pay off before the wind and the tiller has to be kept down in order to counteract this.
LIMBERS.— Holes cut in the floor timbers to allow the water in the bilge to flow freely.
LIST.— Said of a vessel when she leans sideways, for instance to leeward before the pressure of the wind.
MARLINE.— Small cord or spun-yarn.
MOUSE.— To put turns of rope yarn round a hook so as to prevent it slipping out from what it is hooked to. For instance, the sister hooks of the jib sheets are moused to prevent them escaping from the clew of the jib.
NEAPED.— When a vessel has got aground at the top of the spring tides and must await the next springs before she can get off.
PREVENTER.— An additional rope placed to assist another one in supporting a strain, e.g., a preventer backstay.
PURCHASE.— An arrangement of ropes and pulleys by which a mechanical power is gained.
QUARTER.— The after part of a vessel's side.
RANGE.— To range chain, is to get a certain quantity before the windlass so that, when the anchor is let go, it will run out to the bottom without a check.
REEFING.— To reduce the area of a sail by rolling and tying up a portion of it. Also to shorten the bowsprit by hauling it partly in board.
ROUND IN.— To haul in on a rope.
RUN.— The run of a vessel is the after-part of her narrowing up to the stern post. To let a halyard go by the run is to let it go altogether and not to slack it out gently.
RUNNING.— Sailing before the wind.
RUNNING RIGGING.— The ropes, such as halyards, that are hauled upon in order to hoist or trim sails, as opposed to the standing rigging — shrouds and stays which are not moved in working a vessel.
SAG.— To sag to leeward is to drift before the wind or make leeway.
SCUPPERS.— Holes through w hich the water runs overboard off the decks.
SHAKE UP.— To luff up for a short time without losing a vessel's way, so that the sails may shake, and the pressure of the wind being taken off them, the crew are enabled to take a pull on the halyards or purchases.
SHANK.— The long bar or stem of an anchor connecting the arms with the stock.
SHEAVE-HOLE.— A hole in a spar to reeve a rope through.
SHEET.— A rope attached to the clews of a sail, by means of which the sail is trimmed to the wind.
SMALL STUFF.— Spun-yarn, marline, etc., used for serving, seizing, and other purposes.
SPARS.— The masts, yards, booms, etc., on which a vessel's sails are extended.
STAYS.— Ropes supporting a mast. IN STAYS.— When a vessel is in the wind's eye while going about from one tack to another.
STERNBOARD.— When a vessel is going stern foremost.
STIFF.— A vessel is stiff when she can carry plenty of sail without listing over. The opposite to crank.
STOCK.— The cross bar at the end of an anchor's shank.
STOP.— A fastening of small stuff.
STROP.— An eye of rope or wire spliced round a block.
TABERNACLE.— A mast-step on deck, in which the mast works on an iron pivot, and so can be easily lowered.
TACK.— The lower fore corner of a sail.
TAFFRAIL.— The rail round a vessel's stern.
THIMBLE.— An iron ring, with a concave outer edge, into which a strop can be fitted.
TOGGLE.— A pin fastened to the end of a rope, which can be thrust through the eye of another rope, and so secure them together. The jib sheets are often secured to the clew of the jib in this way.
TOPPING LIFT.—The rope which sustains the weight of the end of the boom, and by hauling on which the boom can be raised to the required height.
TRUCE.— A circular block of wood at the masthead with holes in it through which the signal halyards are rove.
WAIST.— The midships section of a vessel.
WASH-BOARDS.— Board placed above the gunwale of a boat to keep the water out.
WATER-WAYS.— The long timbers running fore and aft that divide the decks from the vessel's sides.
WEATHER HELM.— A ship is said to carry weather helm when she has a tendency to come up into the wind, and requires the tiller to be kept to windward so as to counteract this.
WHIP.— A purchase formed by a rope rove through a single block.
YAW.— When a vessel goes off her course first to one side then to the other.